Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures of certain organic compounds containingchloride: polychlorinated n-alkanes (see example structure to the right). The chlorination degree of CPs can vary between 30 and 70 wt%. CPs are subdivided according to their carbon chain length into short chain CPs (SCCPs, C10–13), medium chain CPs (MCCPs, C14–17) and long chain CPs (LCCPs, C>17). Depending on chain length and chlorine content, CPs are colorless or yellowish liquids or solids.
CPs were introduced in the 1930s. Currently, over 200 CP formulations are in use for a wide range of industrial applications, such as flame retardants andplasticisers, as additives in metal working fluids, in sealants, paints and coatings and as a solvent for Dichloramine T (germicide).
SCCPs are classified as persistent and their physical properties (octanol-water partition coefficient logKOW 4.4–8, depending on the chlorination degree) imply a high potential for bioaccumulation. Furthermore, CPs are classified as toxic to aquatic organisms, andcarcinogenic to rats and mice. SCCPs were categorised in group 2B as possibly carcinogenic to humans from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). A global ban on SCCPs is being considered under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.
Copper Carbonate normally refers to the compound (Cu2(OH)2CO3) (the mineral malachite). Sometimes the name is used for Cu3(OH)2(CO3)2 (the related mineral azurite). Malachite and azurite can be found in the verdigris patina that is found on weathered brass, bronze, and copper. The composition of the patina can vary, in a maritime environment depending on the environment a basic chloride may be present, in an urban environment basic sulfates may be present. The compound Copper(II) carbonate CuCO3 is not known to occur naturally. There is a report in 1973 of the production of CuCO3 from CuO or Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 in the presence of carbon dioxide at 500 °C and 20 kb (2 GPa) pressure. What is often called copper(II) carbonate or cupric carbonate is actually basic copper carbonate
Emulsifying wax is a cosmetic emulsifying ingredient. The ingredient name is often followed by the initials NF, indicating that it conforms to the specifications of the National Formulary. Emulsifying wax is created when a wax material (either a vegetable wax of some kind or a petroleum-based wax) is treated with adetergent (typically sodium dodecyl sulfate or polysorbates) to cause it to make oil and water bind together into a smooth emulsion. It is a white waxy solid with a low fatty alcohol odor. The ingredients for Emulsifying Wax NF are: Cetearyl Alcohol, Polysorbate 60, PEG-150 Stearate, and Steareth-20. It has the characteristics of cetyl alcohol combined with the viscosity building effect of stearyl alcohol as an effective thickener and helps form stable emulsions.
Petroleum jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum, soft paraffin or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25), originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties. After petroleum jelly became a medicine chest staple, consumers began to use it for myriad ailments and cosmetic purposes, including toenail fungus, crack foot, genital rashes (non-STD), nosebleeds, diaper rash, and chest colds. Its folkloric medicinal value as a "cure-all" has since been limited by better scientific understanding of appropriate and inappropriate uses. It is recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an approved over-the-counter (OTC) skin protectant, and remains widely used in cosmetic skin care.
Smithsonite, or zinc spar, is zinc carbonate (ZnCO3), a mineral ore of zinc. Historically, smithsonite was identified with hemimorphite before it was realised that they were two distinct minerals. The two minerals are very similar in appearance and the term calamine has been used for both, leading to some confusion. The distinct mineral smithsonite was named in 1832 by François Sulpice Beudant in honor ofEnglish chemist and mineralogist James Smithson (c.1765–1829), whose bequest established the Smithsonian Institution and who first identified the mineral in 1802. Smithsonite is a variably colored trigonal mineral which only rarely is found in well formed crystals. The typical habit is as earthy botryoidal masses. It has a Mohs hardness of 4.5 and a specific gravity of 4.4 to 4.5.
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